With the final defeat of Royalist forces in 1651, power passed to the republican government of the Commonwealth of England. This remained in place until 1653, when Cromwell assumed power as Lord Protector. Effectively ruling as a dictator until his death in 1658, he was replaced by his son Richard. Lacking the support of the army, his rule was brief and the Commonwealth returned in 1659 with the re-installation of the Rump Parliament. The following year, with the government in shambles, General George Monck, who had been serving as Governor of Scotland, invited Charles II to return and take power. He accepted and by the Declaration of Breda offered pardons for acts committed during the wars, respect for property rights, and religious toleration. With Parliament’s consent, he arrived in May 1660 and was crowned the following year on April 23.